You can get started by reading this Explore Europe section on Amsterdam:
I've been to Amsterdam many times and never run out of things to see and do. You'll pick and choose your own with some research.
We enjoyed a hop on hop off style canal boat cruise that also went out into the port. It stopped near the train station. We did it on our last day there. Duh! We should've done it the first day. There are many kinds of canal cruises to choose from.
I'm an art person so the Rijksmuseum, the Stedelijk and the Van Gogh Museum are all on my favorites list.
I'm also a history person and the Anne Frank House as well as the Resistance Museum are must sees to me.
And for a fun niche museum, the Tassen Museum of Bags and Purses is hard to beat.
I mention all these museums because the weather in late October will likely be chilly and wet and the days will be short as indicated below. Inside activities will beckon. Amsterdam average weather for October: https://www.holiday-weather.com/amsterdam/averages/october/
On this website you can also find a Packing Forum:
And packing info in the travel tips: https://www.ricksteves.com/travel-tips/packing-light
I'm not a foodie, so others can speak to that much better than I can.