can I get a sim card in amsterdam that will work in other european countries without being charged for roaming when I travel to another country?
You'll need to buy a new SIM for each new country unless you have an international SIM card. Mobal.com sells one, as well as other companies.
If you buy a SIM in Amsterdam and travel to other countries, you WILL be charged roaming rates. This is true of all the Euro cell networks.
The subject of roaming rates is a bit of an "irritant" at the moment between the Euro cell networks and the European Union. The EU has suggested they may "regulate" these, but the networks are strongly resisting this, saying they need the revenue to continue upgrading the networks. The roaming rates have moderated a bit lately from what I understand, possibly as a result of these discussions.
As the previous post indicated, one possibility would be to buy a "universal" SIM such as that offered by Mobal or Cellular Abroad. These are typically registered in a location such as Lichtenstein, and offer one rate for most calls (depending on country specifics). If you decide to look at this option, be sure to study the rates carefully to ensure there will be no "surprises".
Good luck and happy travels!