We are 5 and get into Amsterdam at 6AM. For a fee of $250 we can take a later flight to Rome, and see Amstardam. We were going to go at the end of our trip to see the Ann Franks house. This can save us a travel day and a overnight in Amsterdam....Can we get to AF House and have lunch and get back for an 8 PM flight out to Rome?
Since your time is limited, I would suggest buying your Anne Frank House tickets online before you go(http://www.annefrank.org). You buy a specific entry time and bypass the line upon arrival (details are on the website). Allow enough time to check bags, train in, and get to the house.
You can do it very easily. As someone stated, MAKE SURE to buy the tickets on-line. I did it this summer and walked by about 200 hundred people waiting in line.
From Centraal Station, I would walk to the AF House. It's about a 15-20 minute walk and the walk will give you a very good idea of the city. Get a google map of the city ahead of time and walk. You CAN'T get lost. It's very easy.