We're flying into Amsterdam and need to get from the airport to the Centraal Station where we're staying at the Doubletree. Do the various transit passes like the 72 hr pass cover the ride from the airport into the Centraal Staion?
No, they're only good for in-city trams, buses and metro. From the airport to the Centraal Station, the separate train ticket costs €5. Ticket machines are easiest to use with coins or ticket windows take euro notes.
There is a new transit pass call the Amsterdam Travel Ticket that covers a round trip train ticket from Schiphol to Amsterdam and a day-pass on Amsterdam's buses and trams. The three-day pass is 25 euros. It could be a good deal, see https://www.ns.nl/producten/en/uitleg-overige-producten/p/amsterdam-travel-ticket