In 2000 I traveled in Germany with a German Rail Pass. When I got home I added up full fare for the trains I took and found I just barely paid for the pass. However, there were other trains I could have taken and saved. Since then (7 trips) I have done the math in advance and never bought a pass. I don't know of any advance purchase discount fares in the Czech Rep, but fares there are generally low. Similarly, there are no discount fares for trips between two points IN Austria, but they do have advance purchase, online Savings Fares (as low as €29 pP) for trips beginning or ending outside Austria. They also have an all day, on/off, 2nd cl regional pass called Einfach Raus for €28 for 2 people. The Austrian Rail website is at www.oebb.at. In Germany (or in/out with one end in Germany) they have a variety of online advance purchase tickets. You can find these discount tickets on the German Rail website. Each German state also has an all day regional pass for 2nd class, called a Länder-Ticket, for about €30 for up to 5 people and on weekends there is the Schönes Wochenende-Ticket for anywhere in Germany by regional trains in 2nd class for up to 5 people for €37.