With just a one day layover in Amsterdam, would my wife and I be able to take a short train trip, as in to a nearby farm town, to see a real, working windmill?? And make it back to A-dam several hours later?? Or should we be satisfied with a canal boatride in the city??
There's probably closer solitary windmills from Amsterdam, but if you want to see a large cluster of about two dozen working specimens, take a day trip to Kinderdijk, near Rotterdam.
You say you want a small farm town. I can think of several with windmills - there are windmills all over, so many they are even on some maps - but most are not easy by train. If the farm isn't important but the windmill is I agree with the two prior suggestions and Zaanse Schans which is easy by train and has several windmills of various types and lots of touristy things...
Go to Kinderdijk and get yourself 19 "real" windmills nicely aligned in a park. One of them is a "visitor's windmill" where you can enter it and see it in operation. Bear in mind, though, these windmills are kept "working" just for the purpose of showcasing. All their original function (flood control) has been replaced by electric pumps.
Several tour companies do windmill tours. Might be a little more money than taking the train yourself but with limited time this might work better.
If you just want one windmill, you can go the De Adriaan in Haarlem. It's a nice one, but it was reconstructed in modern times. For multiple windmills, there is Zaanse Schans. Kinderdijk is probably the best place to see windmills, but it's not as easy to get to.
I also say Kinderdijk. 19 windmills and one is a nice visiting center. Nice Polders with a small river or stream running through it. Absolutely gorgeous.