What is the safest travel method for a single woman between these cities? Train or airline? If airline, which airlines are safest?
I would have recommended a night train... then I saw how far Perm is from St. Petersburg! Although Russian trains are as pleasant and far cheaper than their Western European counterparts, they are not nearly as fast. Perm looks like at least a two day (if not greater) journery from St. Petersburg. For comparison, the night train from St. Petersburg to Vilnius takes almost 14 hours. Your best option might be Aeroflot, which has really improved from its lousy reputation during the Communist era.