Well, "sangría" is mostly intended at tourists and not available all over Spain, it´s mainly a Mediterranean thing in touristy places. I don´t know any local drinking sangría, except maybe on an outdoor barbecue in a really hot summer day. More common in the south and east of Spain, a real rarity in the rest of Spain (except in touristy places).
Spain has over 70 wine regions. The oldest one is Rioja D.O.C (Qualified Denomination of Origin) and in Galicia I believe there are 5 D.O.s. We normally do not ask for wine asking for the grape, but by the region. "I´d like a Rioja", or "I´d like a Priorat", for example, would be the customary words at a bar. And then the age, which is very relevant: a "cosechero" is a red, year wine; a "crianza" has spent two years aging, one of them in a barrel; then "reserva", more oaky; then "gran reserva", which is less common and rare in a bar. Price of a glass of wine may be around 2eur (quality wine), more expensive in Madrid, Barcelona and southern Spain, where there´s less of this wine culture. Albariño is more easily found in northern Spain, but they should have it in most places (although it´s an expensive wine, glass no less than 3eur), and we do not ask for Tempranillo but normally ask for a Rioja, where tempranillo grape is the queen for reds. We do not say "rosé" either, we ask for a "rosado" or "clarete" (a different thing, the last one is a mix of red and white wines), but it´s not that popular (at least here in the north). Aperol will be everywhere, mainly at the time of "aperitivo", that is, around 1pm, prior to lunch.