Are there any particular golf courses that are near historic places?
Depends on what type of golf courses you are looking at. Hubby mostly played links courses, all the big name ones including those with "Royal ---(whatever)---" in the name. He avoids all the new places. He's a bit particular, but with his 1 handicap, who am I to argue?
The trick, in our opinion, is to figure out the golf courses, then find the places to visit. For example, on our first trip, we stopped at Dunotter Castle (I think some of Mel Gibson's movie Hamlet was filmed there) on the way from St. Andrews to Aberdeen. On another trip, we made a little detour and visited Glamis Castle. It was lovely! I found the places after the courses were chosen. We love old ruins, too, and they are everywhere. Hubby has always enjoyed the non-golf sites we have visited.
One thing I will suggest, is to think about choosing golf courses that are in a certain area or region, and stay at as few places as possible. We learned this on our first trip there, that 2 - 3 nights in one hub would be. The second trip was easier as we chose a "hub" place to stay, and were not packing up and at a new hotel every other night like we did that first trip. Machrihanish was the exception, but he had to play it ( Bucket list, you know. ;-)) so we stayed only one night there.
Decide if you want links courses or park (inland) courses. We prefer the links courses because of the topography and scenery.
Caddy is always mandatory at links courses. Well worth the money if you get a good one because you learn a bit about local customs, why you see dogs on the golf course, etc. I'll never forget a couple playing Royal Dornoch with their dog on a leash, tethered to their trolley. And learning why everyone walks the courses with their dogs --- the courses are public property.
I hope this helps.