What time of year do you plan to travel? Are you prepared to rent a car for part of the trip? If so, which part(s)? Public transportation in Norway may take longer, and run less frequently, than you expect.
The highly scenic Norway-in-a-Nutshell route from Oslo to Bergen is an all-day affair. It involves main-line train to Myrdal, Flamsbana spur line to Flam, Naeroyfjord ferry to Gudvangen, bus to Voss, and main-line train to Bergen. Taking this route is totally worthwhile. Public transportation in the fjord area around Flam is fairly limited. There are a few land- or water-based excursions on offer, but taking advantage of any of them would probably require you to spend at least one night along the way. If you might want to do that, you should pin down your plans ASAP, because lodging is very limited in Flam (the most convenient if not the most beautiful town to stay in).
Bergen is a very attractive city and totally worth at least a full day of sightseeing. I'd want to spend a minimum of two nights there, or at least one if you plan to depart on the 8 PM sailing.
Here's the summer schedule for Hurtigruten's northbound ships: https://www.hurtigruten.com/coastal-practical-information/sailing-plan/ Last year the Hurtigruten ferries ran five days a week; I don't know whether they'll be on the same schedule this year. Less-than-daily sailings may constrain your schedule, so you should ideally investigate that aspect of the trip before choosing the date for your flight to Norway.
There's now a second company, Havila Kystruten, taking ships up the coast. Its schedule (similar to Hurtigruten's) is here: https://www.havilavoyages.com/sailing-schedule. I don't know whether it sails daily.
I think both companies sell point-to-point tickets. (I bought two segments on Hurtigruten last summer.) Cabin availability for passengers with tickets for individual segments may be limited, so don't leave purchase of those tickets too late. I believe ticket prices vary by date, and they may increase closer to the date of sailing.
Travel time from Bergen to Geiranger (summer only) is about 18 hours. The ship stops in Alesund both before and after detouring into the Geirangerfjord. Sailing time between the two towns is about 4-1/2 hours; the Geirangerfjord detour consumes 9 daytime hours. Including the detour, the total travel time from Bergen to Alesund is 22-1/2 hours. If the weather cooperates (not guaranteed), the trip into the fjord provides very good views. If you want to disembark and see more of that area, you'd have to wait at least one day before proceeding north by ferry. I'm not sure what sort of local transportation or excursion is available from Geiranger. There may also be bus and/or boat excursions from Alesund beyond what the ferry companies offer. Alesund is an attractive town known for Art Nouveau architecture. I believe there's not much at Geiranger other than the fabulous scenery.
Sailing time from Alesund to Svolvaer (Lofotens) is over 49 hours. (I don't remember whether there are other stops in the Lofotens.) Arrival time is 9:20 PM. That's two full days on the ship.
Sailing time from Svolvaer to Tromso is 16 hours (overnight); the ship arrives at 2:15 PM. Time from Tromso to Hammerfest is about 11 hours, with the ship arriving at 5:05 AM.
I think you've indentified good, varied destinations, but travel time and frequencies are probably going to require a longer trip, a reduction in the time spent at one or more destinations, or trimming of the itinerary.
As you may already know, Norway is a very expensive country. I spent a lot more time on advance planning than I usually do, because I wanted to be sure I was an efficient traveler.