Thank you for telling us that it's your first trip to Europe. In that case you don't have to worry about your luggage, people travel with luggage on trains, buses, trams and metros every day. In fact, you are more likely to look foolish if you take a taxi just because you have one small rolling suitcase.
And it is not just about public transportation, while north American cities are built for cars, European cities, and especially Dutch cities, are built for people.
If you want to know more, I can recommend the youtube channel Not just bikes, about city planning and the difference between North American and European, especially Dutch, cities. It is made by a Canadian that lives in Amsterdam. A good introduction if you have 17 minutes to spare is this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxykI30fS54