What you are missing, unfortunately, is time. I have two types of suggestion to make.
Here is the first type--Day 1: arriving at 10:40 won't put you into Paris before 1:30 or 2:00, tired and jet lagged. You could leave the Louvre for another time, just see the Eiffel Tower and enjoy being in Paris the first day. In fact, it will be more time efficient with such a limited schedule to get onto one of the English-speaking tours of the Louvre, offered by the Louvre guides on a day you are more awake. http://www.louvre.fr/en/visites-guidees
Day 3: Paris-Nice is six hours, plus time to get to and from the stations, so it's hard to fit that in after a day of the Musee d'Orsay and more. A partial remedy is flying Paris to Nice--preferably out of Orly instead of CDG. The flight is one hour, but count three hours with travel to and from the airport, check in, etc. Day 6: Nice to Arles is four hours, which doesn't blow your whole day. I'd stick to the Nice area before going to Arles. Cannes is famous for the film festival, but that's about where interest ends. Day 9: Arles to Barcelona is about six hours, a lot of your day blown. You could fly Vueling Airlines direct Marseille to Barcelona in an hour, plus airport transfer and waiting time.
Second type of suggestion-- with such a short amount of time, I'd leave Nice, an area I know well and love, or Barcelona for another trip, but add time on to your other stops, particularly Paris. You aren't allowing enough time for Paris and are going to be so cooked doing all you've planned there, while adjusting to the time change. Fewer stops but more time to enjoy each place will be more satisfying.