An example for the OP as to the variety one can find in a small part of England. As is typical I'll use my hometown of Portsmouth as an example.
From my house I can take 10 minute walk to the fringe of Farlington Marshes, an incredible nature reserve which is of huge importance for migratory birds during winter, it really is a birdwatching heaven www.hiwwt.org.uk/nature-reserves/farlington-marshes-nature-reserve.
From here you can follow a coastal walking/cycling route (or drive the Eastern Road) that takes you to Eastney where the beachfront starts. Eastney has been the home of the Royal Marines and there used to be a very fitting museum there however it has sadly been moved to the Historic Dockyard.
The long promenade starts here and a short walk will take you to the tennis courts and mini golf pitches to your right and the pebble/sand beach to your left. Looking out to sea you'll see the Palmerston Forts in the solent https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmerston_Forts,_Portsmouth.
Further along you'll reach the area comprising of Southsea Model Village, Canoe Lake and Cumberland House Museum, a small, eclectic museum with a very good butterfly house. Adjacent to this is South Parade Pier, a restored Victorian pier that encapsulates the traditional English seaside holiday http://southparadepier.net/
Mere minutes walk will bring you to Southsea Castle, commissioned by Henry VIII abd where he watched the battle during which the Mary Rose sank. http://southseacastle.co.uk. There's also a very good micro brewery there.
The newly revamped D-Day museum is minutes away, https://theddaystory.com/, with the Blue Reef Aquarium next door.
Walking further west you'll have thd beach on your left and Southsea Common on your right https://www.visitportsmouth.co.uk/things-to-do/southsea-common-p595201
Carry on walking the promenade will kead you to Clarence Pier, Southsea's answer to Coney Island or Atlantic City's Steel Pier, slightly jaded but worth a visit.
From here you'll leave the beachfront and enter Old Portsmouth, the area that has been at the heart of the Royal Navy, was an important part of the Spice Route (hence the name Spice Island) and from where the First Fleet sailed for Australia. It also has Broad Street, a street infamous for prostitutes and which was allegedly the source if the American term "broad". A fascinatingly historical site which rapidly leads to the Historic Dockyard www.historicdockyard.co.uk.
You can then venture inland and visit Charles Dickens' birthplace.
If you have time then I recommend a visit to nearby Portchester Castle, https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/portchester-castle/?utm_source=Google%20Business&utm_campaign=Local%20Listings&utm_medium=Google%20Business%20Profiles&utm_content=portchester%20castle, one of my favourite castles.
I can reccomend more if you haven't been scared off!