I have no experience with highspeed trains from Amsterdam and Antwerp / Brussels, so I use the online schedules of www.belgianrail.com for a rough idea about the needed traveltime.
Quick trains to Antwerp according schedule are 1:12h, slower but cheaper about 2:00h and for Brussels is that 1:50h and about 3:00h.
Problem is always how much you are going to like each place, so hard to say how long you want to stay there, I’m thinking about the following options.
1 First stop from Amsterdam wil be Antwerp in the morning, around noon. Store your luggage there on the station and take the direct tram to the city centre, needs some 10 minutes I guess, walking less then 30 minutes. In the afternoon take the direct intercity train to Ghent and go first to your hotel / B&B and look around there. Do the daytrip to Bruges the next morning and later go directly to Brussels for visiting The Grand Place (+ more places), go back to Amsterdam in the evening.
2 Go first to Brussels and store your luggage there and visit The Grand Place in the morning and go next directly to your hotel / B&B in Ghent and do a daytrip to Bruges. Visit Ghent the next morning and go to Antwerp in the early afternoon, back to Amsterdam in the evening.
3 Use Antwerp as a base and do the trips first to Ghent and Bruges, visit Antwerp the next morning and Brussels in the afternoon, from there highspeed train back to Amsterdam in the evening.
If Bruges is a must stay place for you, you can swap with Ghent as base, if you are so lucky to find a place there. Packing light for one night makes storing the luggage very easy on one of the railwaystations.