I flew into Schipol and took the Thalys train to Brussels last month. You can purchase the tickets at the international ticket window. *Note that they only accepted a credit card with a chip (I had a chip and signature) or you need to pay cash (ATM next to the window). I got a ticket for the next train that was leaving in 10 mins so it worked out well. I like Thalys since they are pretty quick and comfortable, especially with luggage.
Unless you have your heart set on Amsterdam city center, I would just get a hotel at the airport, then leave from the airport train station in the morning. There is a Citizen M hotel just a short walk out of the airport: I didn't stay there, but I have enjoyed the Citizen M hotels in other countries. https://www.citizenm.com/destinations/amsterdam/schiphol-airport-hotel
I'm pretty sure you need to change trains in Brussels. You could take the Thalys to Brussels, store your luggage in lockers and take a walk around Brussels, then head onto Bruges in the evening. The trains from Brussels to Bruges run regularly.